Agricultural waste from the hulls of water caltrop (Trapa taiwanesis Nakai, TT-hull) was extracted by either steeping them in cold 95% ethanol (C95E), refluxing 95E, refluxing 50E, or refluxing hot water (HW) to obtain C95EE, 95EE, 50EE, and HWE, respectively. These four extracts showed acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activities and free radical scavenging activities, as well as anti-non-enzymatic protein glycation in vitro. Eight compounds were isolated from TT-hull-50EE and were used to plot the chromatographic fingerprints of the TT-hull extracts, among which tellimagrandin-I, tellimagrandin-II, and 1,2,3,6-tetra-galloylglucose showed the strongest AChE inhibitory activities, and they also exhibited anti-amyloid β peptide aggregations. The scopolamine-induced amnesiac ICR mice that were fed with TT-hull-50EE or TT-hull-HWE (100 and 200 mg/kg) or tellimagrandin-II (100 and 200 mg/kg) showed improved learning behavior when evaluated using passive avoidance or water maze evaluation, and they showed significant differences (p < 0.05) compared to those in the control group. The enriched hydrolysable tannins of the recycled TT-hull may be developed as functional foods for the treatment of degenerative disorders.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- 生物化學、遺傳與分子生物學 (全部)