A 76-year-old man presented with progressive dementia, gait disturbance, and urinary incontinence for 1 year. Computed tomography scan revealed nonobstructive hydrocephalus, but abnormal papillary structures at the ventricular wall were noted. Before cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion surgery for hydrocephalus, we performed magnetic resonance angiography and magnetic resonance venography, which revealed multiple engorged vessels over the ventricular wall and bilateral hemispheres. Digital subtraction angiography revealed 2 dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) at the left transverse-sigmoid sinus and superior sagittal sinus. Signs of angioarchitecture characteristic of cerebral venous hypertension (CVH) were noted, including cortical vein regurgitation and severe pseudophlebitic pattern. DAVFs with CVH might be a factor contributing to acquired hydrocephalus. DAVFs should be considered when patients with hydrocephalus exhibit abnormal papillary structures at the ventricular wall. Performing CSF diversion surgery for hydrocephalus before downgrading or curing such aggressive DAVFs may lead to major complications.
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