Background: Loss of gut barrier function is crucial in mediating lung injury induced by hemorrhagic shock/resuscitation (HS). High-lipid enteral nutrition (HL) can preserve gut barrier function. We hypothesized that HL could also mitigate HS-induced lung injury. Materials and methods: Forty-eight adult male rats were randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups: HS; HS-HL; Sham; Sham-HL. HS was induced by blood drawing and mean blood pressure was maintained at 40-45 mmHg for 120 min followed by resuscitation with re-infusion of exsanguinated blood/saline mixtures. HL gavage was performed at 45 min before blood drawing and at the end of resuscitation. Results: Intestinal permeability of the HS group was significantly higher than that of the Sham group (P < 0.001). Pulmonary concentrations of malondialdehyde (lipid peroxidation) and inflammatory molecules, including prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2, of the HS group were significantly higher than those of the Sham group. Histologic analyses, including histopathology, wet/dry weight ratio, and neutrophil infiltration revealed moderate lung injury in the HS group. In contrast, intestinal permeability (P < 0.001) and pulmonary concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (P = 0.021 and 0.01) of the HS-HL group were significantly lower than those of the HS group. However, pulmonary concentrations of malondialdehyde, prostaglandin E 2, and interleukin-6 of the HS-HL and HS groups were comparable. Moreover, histologic analyses also revealed moderate lung injury in the HS-HL group. Conclusions: High-lipid enteral nutrition significantly mitigated gut barrier loss and partially mitigated lung inflammation but not oxidation and lung injury in hemorrhagic shock/resuscitation rats.
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