The hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) activity in nine Asian countries/regions was surveyed to overview the current situation. Data of 58 113 HSCTs (allogeneic: 63% vs autologous: 37%) performed between 1986 and 2006 by 432 transplant teams were collected. The number of HSCTs has been increasing in the past two decades in most countries/regions. The increase in allogeneic HSCTs is greater than in autologous HSCTs. The proportion of unrelated donors among allogeneic HSCTs in 2006 varied widely from <1% (Iran and Vietnam) to 62% (Japan). The use of each stem cell source, that is, BM, PBSC, cord blood and others (including co-infusion of BM and PBSC), also varied widely (36, 58, 0.1 and 6% in HSCT from related donors, respectively, and 53, 11, 35 and 1% in HSCT from unrelated donors, respectively). HSCTs have been continuously increasing for all indications except for chronic myelogenous leukemia and solid tumors. Hemoglobinopathy is a common indication among non-malignant diseases in many Asian countries/regions except for China, Japan and Korea. This survey clearly shows the recent progress of HSCTs in Asia and also some differences in donor and stem cell selection and disease application among countries/regions.
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