Acrylamide (AA) and glycidamide (GA) can be produced in carbohydrate-rich food when heated at a high temperature, which can induce a malignant transformation. It has been demonstrated that GA is more mutagenic than AA. It has been shown that the proliferation rate of some cancer cells are increased by treatment with GA; however, the exact genes that are induced by GA in most cancer cells are not clear. In the present study, we demonstrated that GA promotes the growth of prostate cancer cells through induced protein expression of the cell cycle regulator. In addition, we also found that GA promoted the migratory ability of prostate cancer cells through induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated protein expression. In order to understand the potential prognostic relevance of GA-mediated regulators of the cell cycle and EMT, we present a three-gene signature to evaluate the prognosis of prostate cancer patients. Further investigations suggested that the three-gene signature (CDK4, TWIST1 and SNAI2) predicted the chances of survival better than any of the three genes alone for the first time. In conclusion, we suggested that the three-gene signature model can act as marker of GA exposure. Hence, this multigene panel may serve as a promising outcome predictor and potential therapeutic target in prostate cancer patients.
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