Background: The increasing prevalence of obesity has become a pandemic problem, and dietary patterns are one of the important factors causing obesity. Although the correlation between dietary patterns and obesity has been well explored, the gender difference on the association between dietary patterns and obesity remains unclear. The objective of this study examined whether gender difference existed in the relationship of dietary patterns with metabolic parameters and specific indices of adiposity among young and middle-aged adults with dyslipidemia and abnormal fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in Taiwan. Methods: A total of 14,087 subjects aged between 20 and 50 years with dyslipidemia and abnormal FPG were recruited in Taiwan between 2001 and 2010 for a cross-sectional study. Dyslipidemia was defined primarily according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines with minor modification. Abnormal FPG level was defined by the American Diabetes Association. Principal component analysis was conducted to identify dietary patterns. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association of dietary patterns and metabolic parameters with different indices of adiposity including general obesity, central obesity, and high body fat, stratified by gender. Results: Two dietary patterns derived from principal component analysis were the prudent dietary pattern and the western dietary pattern. Both men and women in the highest quartile of the western dietary pattern had a significantly increased odds ratio of general obesity, central obesity, and high body fat. However, only male subjects in the higher quartiles of the prudent dietary pattern had a significantly decreased odds ratio of all indices of obesity. Both men and women with higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol levels had a significantly reduced odds ratio of general and central obesity, while those with higher triglycerides and FPG levels had a significantly increased odds ratio of general and central obesity. Higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was significantly associated with an elevated odds ratio of high body fat, while higher total cholesterol level was significantly correlated with a reduced odds ratio of high body fat only in women. Conclusions: Gender difference exists in the association of dietary patterns and metabolic parameters with obesity and body fat in young and middle-aged adults with dyslipidemia and abnormal FPG in Taiwan.
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