Purpose: In general, male and female are prescribed the same amount of dosage even if most of the cases female required less dosage than male. Physicians are often facing problem on appropriate drug dosing, efficient treatment, and drug safety for a female in general. To identify and synthesize evidence about the effectiveness of gender-based therapy; provide the information to patients, providers, and health system intervention to ensure safety treatment; and minimize adverse effects. Methods: We performed a systematic review to evaluate the effect of gender difference on pharmacotherapy. Published articles from January 1990 to December 2015 were identified using specific term in MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, and the Cochrane library according to search strategies that strengthen the reporting of observational and clinical studies. Results: Twenty-six studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria for this systematic review, yielding a total of 6309 subjects. We observed that female generally has a lower the gastric emptying time, gastric PH, lean body mass, and higher plasma volume, BMI, body fat, as well as reduce hepatic clearance, difference in activity of Cytochrome P450 enzyme, and metabolize drugs at different rate compared with male. Other significant factors such as conjugation, protein binding, absorption, and the renal elimination could not be ignored. However, these differences can lead to adverse effects in female especially for the pregnant, post-menopausal, and elderly women. Conclusion: This systematic review provides an evidence for the effectiveness of dosage difference to ensure safety and efficient treatment. Future studies on the current topic are, therefore, recommended to reduce the adverse effect of therapy.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Obstetrics and Gynaecology