Garcinol, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist, has recently been es-tablished as an anti-inflammation agent. However, the molecular mechanism by which garci-nol suppresses inflammation in the context of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains unclear. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that the administration of physiological doses of garcinol in mice with isoproterenol-induced AMI decreased the effect of lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a))-induced inflammation both in vivo and in vitro via the α7-nAChRs mediated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) signaling pathway. We analyzed altered reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, the production of superoxide by mitochondria, cytokine expression patterns, and the role of the p38 MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway after Lp(a)-stimulated human ventricular cardiomyocyte AC16 cells were treated with increasing doses of garcinol. C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The Cell Counting Kit-8 assay was used to evaluate drug cytotoxicity. Western blots and confocal fluorescence microscopy were used to determine altered expression patterns of inflammatory biomarkers. We also examined whether the therapeutic effect of garcinol in AMI was mediated in part by α7-nAChR. Lp(a)-induced inflammatory cardiomyocytes had increased expression of membrane-bound α7-nAChRs in vitro and in vivo. Low-dose garcinol did not affect cardiomyocyte viability but significantly reduced mitochondrial ROS, CRP, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α production in Lp(a)-stimulated cardiomyocytes (p < 0.05). The Lp(a)-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPKs, CamKII, and NFκB, as well as NFκB-p65 nuclear translocation, was also suppressed (p < 0.05) by garcinol, while the inhibition of p38 MAPK by the inhibitor SB203580 decreased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 MAPK. Garcinol protected cardiomyocytes by inhibiting apoptosis and inflammation in mice with AMI. Furthermore, garcinol also enhanced the expression of microRNA-205 that suppressed the α7-nAChR-induced p38 MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway. Garcinol suppresses Lp(a)-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines by α7-nAChR-mediated inhibition of p38 MAPK/NF-κB signaling in cardiomyocyte AC16 cells and isoproterenol-induced AMI mice.
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