Using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays and functional network analyses, we examined whether MSCs derived from four different origins exhibited unique gene expression profiles individually and then compared the gene expression profiles of all MSCs with those of fetal organs. Our results indicated that within each group of MSCs from the same origin, the variability of the gene expression levels was smaller than that between groups of different origins. Functional genomic studies revealed the specific roles of MSCs from different origins. Our results suggest that amniotic fluid MSCs may initiate interactions with the uterus by upregulating oxytocin and thrombin receptors. Amniotic membrane MSCs may play a role in maintaining homeostasis of fluid and electrolytes by regulating the networks of endothelin, neprilysin, bradykinin receptors, and atrial natriuretic peptide. Cord blood MSCs may be involved in innate immune systems as the neonatal defense system against the earliest encountered pathogens. Adult bone marrow MSCs may be an important source not only of all blood lineages but also of bone formation. However, in spite of the different gene expression profiles seen in MSCs derived from different origins, a set of core gene expression profiles was preserved in these four kinds of MSCs. The core signature transcriptomes of all MSCs, when contrasted against those of fetal organs, included genes involved in the regulation of extracellular matrix and adhesion, transforming growth factor-β receptor signaling, and the Wnt signaling pathways.