Background: The occurrence of fluid accumulation within the uterine cavity was examined in women undergoing IVF to investigate its correlation with tubal disease and impact on the pregnancy outcome. Methods: A registry of ultrasound procedures spanning 5 years was retrospectively studied. Results: Thirty five out of 746 (4.7%) IVF cycles were identified as having uterine fluid accumulation, and 15 (2.0%) persisted until the day of embryo transfer. Two of the 20 cycles of women with transient fluid accumulation were pregnant, and none of those with fluid retention on the day of embryo transfer conceived. The pregnancy rate was only 5.7% (2/35) in women with uterine fluid accumulation detected during IVF cycles. In contrast, the pregnancy rate was 27.1% (193/711) among women in whose cycles no fluid accumulation was detected (P = 0.0048). Uterine fluid accumulation during IVF cycles was found in 8% (18/225) of women documented with tubal factor compared with 3.3% (17/521) with non-tubal factor (P = 0.005). Conclusions: Fluid accumulation within the uterine cavity during the IVF transfer treatment could be observed in patients with both tubal and non-tubal factors; however, it mainly occurred in women with tubal infertility. Although it is not a common complication of IVF cycles, excessive uterine fluid is detrimental to embryo implantation.
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