Fermented rice bran (FRB) is known to protect mice intestines against dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced inflammation; however, the restoration of post-colitis intestinal homeostasis using FRB supplementation is currently undocumented. In this study, we observed the effects of dietary FRB supplementation on intestinal restoration and the development of fibrosis after DSSinduced colitis. DSS (1.5%) was introduced in the drinking water of mice for 5 days. Eight mice were sacrificed immediately after the DSS treatment ended. The remaining mice were divided into three groups, comprising the following diets: control, 10% rice bran (RB), and 10% FRB-supplemented. Diet treatment was continued for 2 weeks, after which half the population of mice from each group was sacrificed. The experiment was continued for another 3 weeks before the remaining mice were sacrificed. FRB supplementation could reduce the general observation of colitis and production of intestinal pro-inflammatory cytokines. FRB also increased intestinal mRNA levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine, tight junction, and anti-microbial proteins. Furthermore, FRB supplementation suppressed markers of intestinal fibrosis. This effect might have been achieved via the canonical Smad2/3 activation and the non-canonical pathway of Tgf-β activity. These results suggest that FRB may be an alternative therapeutic agent against inflammation-induced intestinal fibrosis.
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