Extra-respiratory manifestations of COVID-19

Chih Cheng Lai, Wen Chien Ko, Ping Ing Lee, Shio Shin Jean, Po Ren Hsueh

研究成果: 雜誌貢獻文章同行評審

147 引文 斯高帕斯(Scopus)


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a global health threat. Although most patients with COVID-19 manifest fever and respiratory tract symptoms, SARS-CoV-2 infection may also involve other organs/systems and present with extra-respiratory manifestations, including cardiac, gastrointestinal, hepatic, renal, neurological, olfactory, gustatory, ocular, cutaneous and haematological symptoms. Occasionally, these extra-respiratory symptoms/signs represent the initial presentation of SARS-CoV-2 infection, prior to fever or respiratory manifestations. Therefore, this comprehensive review of the extra-respiratory manifestations of COVID-19 is intended to help clinicians better understand the range of clinical presentations associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, allowing the consideration of COVID-19 in differential diagnoses. A screening test for SARS-CoV-2 should be performed when patients have these extra-respiratory manifestations. In addition, clinicians should be alerted to the adverse effects of anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents that can mimic the extra-respiratory manifestations of COVID-19. Moreover, some extra-respiratory manifestations, such as ocular and gastrointestinal involvement, may be caused by direct invasion of SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, protective measures should be taken while managing the associated clinical specimens. Finally, several extra-respiratory manifestations, such as cardiac involvement, acute kidney injury, coagulation disorders and thrombotic complications, could be associated with a poor prognosis.

期刊International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
出版狀態已發佈 - 8月 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • 微生物學(醫學)
  • 傳染性疾病
  • 藥學(醫學)


深入研究「Extra-respiratory manifestations of COVID-19」主題。共同形成了獨特的指紋。