With increasing aesthetic awareness and emphasis on time costs in today’s society, monolithic multilayer precolored zirconia ceramics (M-Zr) facilitate aesthetic restorations in a convenient and straightforward manner without the need for veneering porcelain to modify the color. However, the effect of abutment materials on the final color of M-Zr remains unclear. Herein, we placed Vita A1 Shade M-Zr on six different abutment materials, zirconia (Y-TZP), 3D printed composite resin (CR), dental model resin (MR), polyetheretherketone (PEEK), polyetherketoneketone (PEKK), and cobalt–chromium alloy (Co–Cr), to evaluate their effect on the color accuracy of M-Zr. The color attributes (L*, a*, and b*) were measured using a dental spectrophotometer. The translucency parameter (TP), contrast ratio, color difference (ΔE) between each background substrate and the Vita A1 Shade Guide, and chroma values (C) were calculated to evaluate the color accuracy of M-Zr. A statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey’s HSD tests (α = 0.05). The experimental results indicate that the TP values and contrast ratio of the M-Zr samples were 14.85 and 0.83, respectively. Co–Cr had the highest ΔE (6.08) and lowest C value (7.52); PEKK had the lowest ΔE (2.60), and PEEK had the highest C value (12.23) (p < 0.05). Notably, the ΔE values of CR (3.13), PEEK (2.86), and PEKK were within clinical indicators (ΔE < 3.7). Based on these results, it can be concluded that the abutment material has a significant effect on the final color of the M-Zr, and PEEK or PEKK resulted in good color accuracy. When choosing the dental MR, traditional zirconia, or metals as abutment materials, colored or opaque cement might be required to eliminate color distortion and achieve desirable optical properties.