This study focuses on estimating the probabilistic soil and dust ingestion rates for children under 3 years old by the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation Soil and Dust (SHEDS-S/D) model developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The health risk of children's exposure to heavy metals through soil and dust ingestion and dermal absorption was then assessed in three exposure scenarios. In the exposure scenario of direct contact with soil, the average soil and dust ingestion rates for children aged 24 to 36 months were 90.7 and 29.8 mg day-1 in the sand and clay groups, respectively. Hand-to-mouth soil ingestion was identified as the main contributor to soil and dust ingestion rates, followed by hand-to-mouth dust ingestion and object-to-mouth dust ingestion. The soil-to-skin adherence factor was the most influential factor increasing the soil and dust ingestion rate based on a sensitivity analysis in the SHEDS-S/D model. Furthermore, the modeled soil and dust ingestion rates based on the SHEDS-S/D model were coincident with results calculated by the tracer element method. Our estimates highlight the soil ingestion rate as the key parameter increasing the risk for children, while a higher frequency of hand washing could potentially reduce the risk.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- 化學 (全部)