Background: Eradication of Helicobacter pylori has become part of the standard therapy for peptic ulcer. However, the role of H pylori eradication in perforation of peptic ulcers remains controversial. It is unclear whether eradication of the bacterium confers prolonged ulcer remission after simple repair of perforated peptic ulcer. Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was performed to evaluate the effects of H pylori eradication on prevention of ulcer recurrence after simple closure of perforated peptic ulcers. The primary outcome to evaluate these effects was the incidence of postoperative ulcers; the secondary outcome was the rate of H pylori elimination. Results: The meta-analysis included five randomized controlled trials and 401 patients. A high prevalence of H pylori infection occurred in patients with perforated peptic ulcers. Eradication of H pylori significantly reduced the incidence of ulcer recurrence at 8 wk (risk ratio 2.97; 95% confidence interval: 1.06-8.29) and 1 y (risk ratio 1.49; 95% confidence interval: 1.10-2.03) postoperation. The rate of H pylori eradication was significantly higher in the treatment group than in the nontreatment group. Conclusions: Eradication therapy should be provided to patients with H pylori infection after simple closure of perforated gastroduodenal ulcers.
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