Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is highly aggressive and responds poorly to conventional chemotherapy. The challenge of TNBC therapy is to maximize the efficacies of conventional chemotherapeutic agents and reduce their toxicities. Metronomic chemotherapy using continuous low-dose chemotherapy has been proposed as a new treatment option, but this approach is limited by the selection of drugs. To improve antitumor therapeutic effects, we developed electro-spun paclitaxel-loaded poly-D-L-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) nanofibers as a topical implantable delivery device for controlled drug release and site-specific treatment. The subcutaneously im-planted paclitaxel-loaded nanofibrous membrane in mice was compatible with the concept of metronomic chemotherapy; it significantly enhanced antitumor activity, inhibited local tumor growth, constrained distant metastasis, and prolonged survival compared with intraperitoneal paclitaxel injection. Furthermore, under paclitaxel-loaded nanofiber treatment, systemic toxicity was low with a persistent increase in lean body weight in mice; in contrast, body weight decreased in other groups. The paclitaxel-loaded nanofibrous membranes provided sustained drug release and site-specific treatment by directly targeting and changing the tumor microenvironment, resulting in low systemic toxicity and a significant improvement in the therapeutic effect and safety compared with conventional chemotherapy. Thus, metronomic chemotherapy with paclitaxel-loaded nanofibrous membranes offers a promising strategy for the treatment of TNBC.
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