Embelin is a quinone derivative and found in the fruits of Embelia ribes Burm.f. Embelin has been identified as a small molecular inhibitor of X-chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, and has multiple biological activities, including antioxidation, anti-inflammation, and antitumor effects. However, the effect of embelin in platelets remains unclear. Thus, this study investigated the antiplatelet mechanism of embelin. Our data revealed that embelin could inhibit platelet aggregation induced by various agonists, including the protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu). Embelin, as well as the PKC inhibitor Ro 31-8220, markedly reduced PDBu-mediated phosphorylation of the PKC substrate, suggesting that embelin may be a PKC inhibitor for platelets. Embelin could block PKC downstream signaling and events, including the inhibition of protein kinase B and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, granule release, and glycoprotein IIbIIIa activation. Moreover, embelin could delay thrombus formation in the mesenteric microvessels of mice, but did not significantly affect the tail bleeding time. In conclusion, we demonstrated that embelin is a PKC inhibitor and possesses antiplatelet and antithrombotic effects. The further analysis is necessary to more accurately determine clinical therapeutic potential of embelin in all clinical thromboembolic events with disturbance of thrombocyte function.
Li, J. Y., Chen, R. J., Huang, L. T., Lee, T. Y., Lu, W. J., & Lin, K. H. (2019). Embelin as a Novel Inhibitor of PKC in the Prevention of Platelet Activation and Thrombus Formation. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 8(10). https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8101724