Study Objective: Cervical stenosis can be an impediment to embryo transfer (ET) and intrauterine insemination (IUI). We propose a technique of hysteroscopic cervical resection to overcome cervical stenosis. Design: Prospective clinical study (Canadian Task Force classification III). Setting: Private general hospital. Patients: Forty-three infertile women in whom trial ET or IUI had failed with 3 available catheters. Interventions: The procedure was performed with a hysteroscope under ultrasound guidance. Starting from the external os, the loop electrode gradually resected protrusions and cervical tissue until the hysteroscope could enter the uterine cavity. Repeat trial ET/IUI was performed 1 month later. The women who became pregnant underwent sonographic measurement of the cervical length and dilatation in the second and third trimesters. Measurements and Main Results: Excluding 13 patients in whom the sound could pass through the cervical canal after anesthesia, 30 patients were included for analysis. The procedure failed in 1 patient (3.3%). The mean operation time was 18.0 (±7.4) minutes. Repeat trial ET/IUI was successful in all patients. There were 5 twin pregnancies and 9 singleton pregnancies after IUI or ET. From the 5 women with twin pregnancies; 2 underwent premature delivery at 34 weeks; and 3 underwent elective cesarean delivery at 35, 36, and 37 weeks, respectively. From the 9 women with singleton pregnancies, 1 underwent cesarean section at 36 weeks because of preeclampsia, and the other 8 delivered at term. Conclusion: Hysteroscopic cervical resection is a safe and effective treatment for cervical stenosis.
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