Background: Hemoptysis, a common symptom of different lung diseases, engenders shortness of breath and increased mortality. Tranexamic acid (TXA), a commonly used antifibrinolytic agent, can control bleeding. However, the effects of its use on pulmonary hemorrhage have rarely been discussed. Objective: We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of TXA for hemoptysis to investigate its effectiveness in reducing hemoptysis volume and duration. Methods: We searched the Cochrane Library, Embase, PubMed (including MEDLINE), and Scopus databases for relevant RCTs. Two of the authors individually assessed study quality by using the Cochrane risk-of-bias (RoB) 2.0 tool, and the pooled results were evaluated using RevMan 5.3. Results: We obtained 617 articles, of which four RCTs met eligibility criteria. The pooled results demonstrated no significant differences in bleeding duration or hemoptysis resolution between the TXA and control groups. Nevertheless, TXA use reduced bleeding volume (mean difference [MD] = − 56.21 mL; 95% CI − 94.70 to − 17.72 mL), further intervention risk (Peto odds ratio = 0.24; 95% CI 0.08–0.67; I2 = 0%), and length of hospital stay (MD = − 1.62 days; 95% CI − 2.93 to − 0.31; I2 = 0%). Conclusion: TXA use was observed to reduce bleeding volume, further intervention risk, and length of hospital stay in patients with hemoptysis; however, our results may have low statistical power because of limited sample size. Additional large-scale RCTs are thus warranted to confirm the effectiveness and safety of TXA use.
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