To pray in temples is a regular activity in Buddhism and Taoism societies, yet few studies investigated the effects of particles from incense-burning in temples. The objectives of this study are to examine particle size and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) effects of particles on coronary artery endothelial cell. We used two micro-orifice uniform deposit impactors to collect 11 sets of particles at a Chinese temple in Yi-Lan, Taiwan. 16 PAHs were determined by a high-resolution gas chomatograph/high-resolution mass spectrometer. Human coronary artery endothelial cells were exposed to particle extracts in three size ranges: PM0.1 (diameters less than 0.1μm), PM1.0-0.1 (diameters between 1.0 and 0.1μm), and PM10-1.0 (diameters between 10 and 1.0μm) at 50μg/mL for 4h, and interleukin-6 (IL-6), endothelin-1 (ET-1), and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations in the medium were measured. We found that PM1.0-0.1 stimulation resulted in significantly higher IL-6 and ET-1 production than PM0.1 and PM10-1.0. PM1.0-0.1 also significantly reduced HCAEA cells to synthesize NO. Naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene and anthracene of PM1.0-0.1 were highly correlated with NO reduction. This study found that size and composition of temple particles were both important factors in inducing cytokine production and reducing NO formation in human coronary artery endothelial cell cultures.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Chemistry
- Waste Management and Disposal
- Environmental Engineering