Purpose: Osteosarcopenic adiposity (OSA), which is described as the concurrent occurrence of osteopenia, sarcopenia, and adiposity, can lead to frailty and increase the risk of physical disability in elderly women. Progressive elastic band resistance exercise training (peRET) is considered a safe and feasible exercise intervention for elderly women with sarcopenic obesity. This study investigated the effects of elastic band resistance exercise on the physical capacity and body composition of elderly women with osteosarcopenic adiposity. Method: A total of 15 and 12 women were randomly assigned to the experimental (12 weeks of resistance exercise) and control groups (no exercise intervention), respectively. Lean mass (measured using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometer) and physical capacity assessments (such as timed up and go test and single leg stance tests) were conducted at baseline, 12 weeks (end of intervention), and 6 months after the intervention. Outcome differences within the study and control groups were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance with a post-hoc test. The Mann–Whitney U test was used to examine differences between groups at different time points. Results: After the intervention, no body composition changes in muscle mass and fat were observed between the study and control groups. Moreover, muscle mass and fat body composition did not significantly differ at different time points. The bone density was higher in the study group, with a higher T-score than their baseline values, but did not significantly differ compared with the control group. The study group exhibited more improved physical function than the control group, but the effect did not last after 6 months of follow-up. Conclusions: A 12-week progressive elastic band resistance training program effectively increased the physical capacity and improved the bone density; however, without persistent training, the positive effect diminished at 6-month follow-up.
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