The tyrosinase inhibitory and antioxidant activities of four nicotinic acid derivatives, namely, nicotinamide, methyl nicotinate, nicotinic acid hydroxamate (NAH), N-methyl nicotinic acid hydroxamate (NAH-M), and kojic acid, were studied. The tyrosinase inhibitory activity was found to follow the trend: NAH > kojic acid > NAH-M > methyl nicotinate > nicotinamide. The concentrations of half-inhibition (IC 50) of NAH against monophenolase and diphenolase activity were 2 and 1 μM, respectively; the inhibition mode was a mixed-type in the former and an uncompetitive type in the latter. In the antioxidant activity assays, NAH and NAH-M, but not nicotinamide or methyl nicotinate, showed dose-dependent DPPH radical scavenging activity, and their corresponding IC 50 values were 65.81 and 125 μM, respectively. NAH and NAH-M also showed hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and anti-low-density-lipoprotein peroxidation. These results indicate that NAH and NAH-M have the potential to be useful in cosmetics or food processing, and therefore, they should be investigated further.
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