Diabetes is often associated with decreased melatonin level. The aim was to investigate the effects of different dosage of melatonin on glucose hemostasis, antioxidant ability and adipokines secretion in diabetic institute for cancer research (ICR) mice. Forty animals were randomly divided into five groups including control (C), diabetic (D), low-dosage (L), medium-dosage (M), and high-dosage (H) groups. Groups L, M, and H, respectively, received oral melatonin at 10, 20, and 50 mg/kg of BW (body weight) daily after inducing hyperglycemia by nicotinamide (NA)/ streptozotocin (STZ). After the six-week intervention, results showed that melatonin administration increased insulin level and performed lower area under the curve (AUC) in H group (p < 0.05). Melatonin could lower hepatic Malondialdehyde (MDA) level in all melatonin-treated groups and increase superoxide dismutase activity in H group (p < 0.05). Melatonin-treated groups revealed significant higher adiponectin in L group, and lower leptin/adiponectin ratio and leptin in M and H groups (p > 0.05). Melatonin could lower cholesterol and triglyceride in liver and decrease plasma cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) in L group, and increase plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) in H group (p < 0.05). Above all, melatonin could decrease oxidative stress, increase the adiponectin level and improve dyslipidemia, especially in H group. These data support melatonin possibly being a helpful aid for treating hyperglycemia-related symptoms.
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