People with sarcopenic obesity (SO) are characterized by both low muscle mass (sarcopenia) and high body fat (obesity); they have greater risks of metabolic diseases and physical disability than people with sarcopenia or obesity alone. Exercise and nutrition have been reported to be effective for both obesity and sarcopenia management. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects of exercise and nutrition on body composition, metabolic health, and physical performance in individuals with SO. Studies investigating the effects of exercise and nutrition on body composition, metabolic health, and physical performance in SO individuals were searched from electronic databases up to April 2019. Fifteen studies were included in the meta-analysis. Aerobic exercise decreased body weight and fat mass (FM). Resistance exercise (RE) decreased FM and improved grip strength. The combination of aerobic exercise and RE decreased FM and improved walking speed. Nutritional intervention, especially low-calorie high-protein (LCHP) diet, decreased FM but did not affect muscle mass and grip strength. In addition to exercise training, nutrition did not provide extra benefits in outcome. Exercise, especially RE, is essential to improve body composition and physical performance in individuals with SO. Nutritional intervention with LCHP decreases FM but does not improve physical performance.
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