Purpose: To explore the immediate and prolonged effects of arch support insoles on single-and dual-task gait performance among community-dwelling older adults. Methods: Twenty women performed single-and dual-task walking for 10 m at self-selected comfortable and fast paces while performing serial subtractions (cognitive interference) or carrying a tray (motor interference). Spatiotemporal gait parameters were measured and compared with measurements without arch support immediately after the insertion of the insoles and at 1-week follow-up. Results: Some effects were noted, with small-to-medium effect sizes. During comfortable-paced single-task walking, stride length and walk ratio (step length/cadence) increased after arch support use. During comfortable-paced motor dual-task walking, arch support use increased cadence, stride length, and speed and decreased dual-task costs (DTCs) on cadence and speed. During fast-paced motor dual-task walking, cadence increased and the DTC on cadence decreased after arch support use at the 1-week follow-up. During comfortable-paced cognitive dual-task walking, cadence increased and the walk ratio decreased following arch support use. At the 1-week follow-up, DTCs on cadence reduced, but those on stride length and speed increased. During fast-paced cognitive dual-task walking, the speed and stride length demonstrated immediate decreases followed by increases at the 1-week follow-up. Conclusion: The study results indicate that the use of arch support improves single-and motor dual-task gait performance, which may contribute to gait and balance training in older adults.
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