Several studies have applied tricalcium phosphate (TCP) or autografts in bone tissue engineering to enhance the clinical regeneration of bone. Unfortunately, there are several drawbacks related to the use of autografts, including a risk of infection, blood loss, limited quantities, and donor-site morbidities. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is a natural extracellular matrix (ECM) biomaterial that possesses bioactive factors, which can generally be used in regenerative medicine. The goal of the present investigation was to develop osteoconductive TCP incorporated with bioactive PRF for bio-synergistic bone regeneration and examine the potential biological mechanisms and applications. Our in vitro results showed that PRF plus TCP had excellent biosafety and was favorable for initiating osteoblast cell attachment, slow release of bioactive factors, cell proliferation, cell migration, and ECM formation that potentially impacted bone repair. In a rabbit femoral segmental bone defect model, regeneration of bone was considerably augmented in defects locally implanted by PRF plus TCP according to radiographic and histologic examinations. Notably, the outcomes of this investigation suggest that the combination of PRF and TCP possesses novel synergistic and bio-inspired functions that facilitate bone regeneration.
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