Dyslipidemia is associated with glomerular injury. However, the effect of statins on chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression remains controversial. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of statins for renal protection in patients with CKD. The retrospective cohort study comprised 3441 patients diagnosed with CKD in multiple medical centers. We divided the patients into two cohorts based on statin prescription, and compared proportions and risks of CKD progression events between the two groups. CKD progression event was defined as an average annual decline of eGFR >5 mL/min/1.73 m2 or advancement to the dialysis stage. The result revealed that among all incident patients with CKD, 28.7% and 30.3% of the users and nonusers demonstrated CKD progression, respectively. The crude odds ratio (OR) of CKD progression was 0.93 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.78–1.10]. After adjustment for baseline characteristics, the adjusted OR was 0.80 (95% CI 0.63–1.01). The sensitivity analysis results showed consistent OR for CKD progression, stratification by age, sex, Charlson score, and statins use within 1 year before index date. The effect of statins was significant in patients with CKD stage 3B-5 (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.48–0.95), but not statistically significant in those with CKD stage 1–3A (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.68–1.38). The effect of statins was significant in patients with proteinuria ≥1000 mg/day (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.43–0.92), but not statistically significant in those with proteinuria <1000 mg/day (OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.74–1.41).