Background and aims The effects of influenza vaccination (IV) on the outcomes of patients with kidney disease (KD) are not completely understood. We aimed to evaluate and compare the outcomes during admission of KD between elderly patients who did or did not receive an IV within the previous 12 months. Methods We used health insurance research data in Taiwan and conducted a population-based cohort study that included 22,590 older people aged ≥ 65 years who were hospitalized for KD in 2008–2013. We performed propensity score matching (case-control ratio 1:1) to select 4386 eligible IV recipients and 4386 nonrecipient controls for comparison. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of IV associated with complications and mortality during KD admission were calculated using multivariable logistic regression analyses. Results During hospitalization for KD, IV was significantly associated with lower risks of 30-day in-hospital mortality (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.39–0.82), septicemia (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.68–0.87), and intensive care (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.75–0.96). Additionally, IV recipients had a shorter length of hospital stay and lower medical expenditure than nonrecipients. Subgroup analyses further showed that the association of IV with reduced adverse events was confined to patients aged ≥ 75 years. Conclusions Previous IV was associated with reduced risks of complications and mortality and in elderly patients hospitalized for KD. We raised the possibility and suggested the need to promote IV for this susceptible population of patients with KD.
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