In the present study, we attempted to assess the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effect of hypervolaemic haemodilution in rat heatstroke. In anaesthetized rats treated with normal saline (NS) immediately after the onset of heatstroke induced by Ta (ambient temperature) of 42°C for 88 min, followed by Ta of 24°C for 12 min, the values for MAP (mean arterial pressure), ICP (intracranial pressure), CPP (cerebral perfusion pressure), CBF (cerebral blood blow), brain PO2 (partial pressure of O2) and striatal glutamate, glycerol, lactate/pyruvate ratio, hydroxyl radicals and neuronal damage score were 42 ± 3 mmHg, 33 ± 3 mmHg, 9 ± 3 mmHg, 109 ± 20 BPU (blood perfusion units), 6 ± 1 mmHg, 51 ± 7 μmol/l, 24 ± 3 μmol/l, 124 ± 32, 694 ± 22% of baseline and 2.25 ± 0.05 respectively. In animals treated with 10% albumin immediately after the onset of heatstroke (T a of 42°C for 88 min), the values for MAP, ICP, CPP, CBF, brain PO2 and striatal glutamate, glycerol, lactate/pyruvate ratio, hydroxyl radicals and neuronal damage score were 64 ± 6 mmHg, 10 ± 2 mmHg, 54 ± 5 mmHg, 452 ± 75 BPU, 15 ± 2 mmHg, 3 ± 2 μmol/l, 4 ± 2 μmol/l, 7 ± 3, 119 ± 7% of baseline and 0.38 ± 0.05 respectively. Apparently, the heatstroke-induced arterial hypotension, intracranial hypertension, cerebral hypoperfusion, cerebral ischaemia, brain hypoxia, increased levels of striatal glutamate, glycerol, lactate/pyruvate ratio and hydroxyl radicals, and increased striatal neuronal damage score values were all attenuated significantly by the induction of hypervolaemic haemodilution in rats immediately at the onset of heatstroke. These results demonstrate that the neuroprotective effect of hypervolaemic haemodilution is associated with a decrease in the elevation of glutamate, glycerol, lactate and free radicals in brain exposed to experimental heatstroke-induced cerebral ischaemia/hypoxia injury.
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Chang, C. K., Chiu, W. T., Chang, C. P., & Lin, M. T. (2004). Effect of hypervolaemic haemodilution on cerebral glutamate, glycerol, lactate and free radicals in heatstroke rats. Clinical Science, 106(5), 501-509. https://doi.org/10.1042/CS20030263