Background: Hemodialysis patients are at high risk of muscle loss as a result of aging and disease, and combined with inadequate dietary intake. The Healthy Eating Index for HemoDialysis patients (HEI-HD) was developed to assess the dietary quality of hemodialysis patients. The purposes of this study were to examine the effects of different nutritional education models using HEI-HD-based education on dietary quality and muscle mass in hemodialysis patients. Methods: A quasi-experimental study was conducted from May 2019 to April 2021, with four groups, including no course for patients and nurses (Non-C), course for nurses (CN), course for patients (CP), and course for patients and nurses (CPN). The courses were delivered by registered dietitians. The data of 94 patients were collected and analyzed at baseline, after 2 months of intervention, and 2 months follow-up, including demographics, body composition, 3-day dietary records, and hemodialysis dietary knowledge. The HEI-HD index score was calculated. Results: Patients aged 58.3 ± 10.1 years. The dietary quality change in the CPN group was improved as compared with the Non-C group (−3.4 ± 9.5 vs. 3.0 ± 5.5, 0.04). The skeletal muscle mass of the Non-C group at intervention was also significantly lower than baseline, but the CPN group was not. Conclusions: The HEI-HD-based nutritional education for both patients and nurses showed a positive effect on improving the dietary quality and maintaining muscle mass in hemodialysis patients.
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