This study evaluated the new bone formation potential of micro–macro biphasic calcium phosphate (MBCP) and Bio‐Oss grafting materials with and without dental pulp‐derived mesen-chymal stem cells (DPSCs) and bone marrow‐derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in a rabbit calvarial bone defect model. The surface structure of the grafting materials was evaluated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The multipotent differentiation characteristics of the DPSCs and BMSCs were assessed. Four circular bone defects were created in the calvarium of 24 rabbits and randomly allocated to eight experimental groups: empty control, MBCP, MBCP+DPSCs, MBCP+BMSCs, Bio‐Oss+DPSCs, Bio‐Oss+BMSCs, and autogenous bone. A three‐dimensional analysis of the new bone formation was performed using micro‐computed tomography (micro‐CT) and a histological study after 2, 4, and 8 weeks of healing. Homogenously porous structures were observed in both grafting materials. The BMSCs revealed higher osteogenic differentiation capacities, whereas the DPSCs exhibited higher colony‐forming units. The micro‐CT and histological analysis findings for the new bone formation were consistent. In general, the empty control showed the low-est bone regeneration capacity throughout the experimental period. By contrast, the percentage of new bone formation was the highest in the autogenous bone group after 2 (39.4% ± 4.7%) and 4 weeks (49.7% ± 1.5%) of healing (p < 0.05). MBCP and Bio‐Oss could provide osteoconductive support and prevent the collapse of the defect space for new bone formation. In addition, more osteo-blastic cells lining the surface of the newly formed bone and bone grafting materials were observed after incorporating the DPSCs and BMSCs. After 8 weeks of healing, the autogenous bone group (54.9% ± 6.1%) showed a higher percentage of new bone formation than the empty control (35.3% ± 0.5%), MBCP (38.3% ± 6.0%), MBCP+DPSC (39.8% ± 5.7%), Bio‐Oss (41.3% ± 3.5%), and Bio‐ Oss+DPSC (42.1% ± 2.7%) groups. Nevertheless, the percentage of new bone formation did not sig-nificantly differ between the MBCP+BMSC (47.2% ± 8.3%) and Bio‐Oss+BMSC (51.2% ± 9.9%) groups and the autogenous bone group. Our study results demonstrated that autogenous bone is the gold standard. Both the DPSCs and BMSCs enhanced the osteoconductive capacities of MBCP and Bio‐ Oss. In addition, the efficiency of the BMSCs combined with MBCP and Bio‐Oss was comparable to that of the autogenous bone after 8 weeks of healing. These findings provide effective strategies for the improvement of biomaterials and MSC‐based bone tissue regeneration.
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