Near-infrared (NIR)-light-modulated photothermal thrombolysis has been investigated to overcome the hemorrhage danger posed by clinical clot-busting substances. A long-standing issue in thrombosis fibrinolytics is the lack of lesion-specific therapy, which should not be ignored. Herein, a novel thrombolysis therapy using photothermal disintegration of a fibrin clot was explored through dual-targeting glycol chitosan/heparin-decorated polypyrrole nanoparticles (GCS-PPY-H NPs) to enhance thrombus delivery and thrombolytic therapeutic efficacy. GCS-PPY-H NPs can target acidic/P-selectin high-expression inflammatory endothelial cells/thrombus sites for initiating lesion-site-specific thrombolysis by hyperthermia using NIR irradiation. A significant fibrin clot-clearance rate was achieved with thrombolysis using dual-targeting/modality photothermal clot disintegration in vivo. The molecular level mechanisms of the developed nanoformulations and interface properties were determined using multiple surface specific analytical techniques, such as particle size distribution, zeta potential, electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), wavelength absorbance, photothermal, immunofluorescence, and histology. Owing to the augmented thrombus delivery of GCS-PPY-H NPs and swift treatment time, dual-targeting photothermal clot disintegration as a systematic treatment using GCS-PPY-H NPs can be effectively applied in thrombolysis. This novel approach possesses a promising future for thrombolytic treatment.
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