Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the putative link between dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4i) use and the risk of fracture in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: This propensity-score-matched population-based cohort study was performed between 2009 and 2013 on patients with type 2 diabetes who were stable metformin users. A total of 3996 patients with type 2 diabetes used DPP-4i as a second-line antidiabetic drug. The same number of matched non-DPP-4i users were followed up until fracture occurrence, health insurance policy termination, or the end of 2013. The incidence rates of overall and cause-specific fractures were estimated based on the Poisson assumption. A multiple Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the covariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) to determine the association between DPP-4i use and overall and cause-specific fractures stratified by age and sex. Results: Over a maximum follow-up period of 5 years, 340 DPP-4i users and 419 non-DPP-4i users were newly diagnosed with fractures, yielding incidence rates of 28.03 and 32.04 per 1000 people per year, respectively. The Cox proportional hazard model revealed that DPP-4i use significantly reduced the risk of all-cause fractures and upper extremity fractures, with adjusted HRs of 0.86 (95% CI: 0.74–0.99) and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.59–0.95), respectively. The aforementioned associations of DDP-4i use with fracture were sustained across sex and age stratifications. Conclusions: The results of this study supported the premise that DPP-4i usage is associated with a reduced risk of all-cause fractures and upper extremity fractures in patients with type 2 diabetes.
- cohort study
- dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor
- type 2 diabetes
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