Diabetes is a metabolic disorder with increased risk of vascular diseases. Tissue ischemia may occur with diabetic vascular complications. Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) constitute a reparative response to ischemic injury. This study investigated the effects of oral glutamine (GLN) supplementation on circulating EPC mobilization and expression of tissue EPC-releasing markers in diabetic mice subjected to limb ischemia. Diabetes was induced by a daily intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin for 5 days. Diabetic mice were divided into 2 nonischemic groups and 6 ischemic groups. One of the nonischemic and 3 ischemic groups were fed the control diet, while the remaining 4 groups received diets with identical components except that part of the casein was replaced by GLN. The respective diets were fed to the mice for 3 weeks, and then the nonischemic mice were sacrificed. Unilateral hindlimb ischemia was created in the ischemic groups, and mice were sacrificed at 1, 7 or 21 days after ischemia. Their blood and ischemic muscle tissues were collected for further analyses. Results showed that plasma matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-9 and the circulating EPC percentage increased after limb ischemia in a diabetic condition. Compared to groups without GLN, GLN supplementation up-regulated plasma stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1 and muscle MMP-9, SDF-1, hypoxia-inducible factor-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor gene expression. The CD31-immunoreactive intensities were also higher in the ischemic limb. These findings suggest that GLN supplementation enhanced circulating EPC mobilization that may promote endothelium repair at ischemic tissue in diabetic mice subjected to limb ischemia.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Molecular Biology
- Nutrition and Dietetics
- Clinical Biochemistry