Over the past three decades research interest in hypokinetic, hyperkinetic, sensorimotor and psychomotor abnormalities in mental disorders has steadily increased. This development has led to an increasing number of scientific initiatives that have not only highlighted the clinical need for early detection of extrapyramidal motor symptoms, tardive dyskinesia and catatonia but also provided numerous neurobiological findings and clinically relevant results based on the pathology of the sensorimotor system in patients with mental disorders. In view of these developments in January 2019 the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) research domain criteria (RDoC) initiative introduced a sixth domain called the sensorimotor domain to address deficits in the sensorimotor system and associated behavioral abnormalities. To draw attention to the rapid progress just since the introduction of the sensorimotor domain, a 2-year (1 January 2019–18 February 2021) systematic review is presented highlighting recent neuroimaging findings and discussing challenges for future research. In summary, aberrant sensorimotor processing in mental disorders is associated with dysfunction of the cerebello-thalamo-motor cortex network, which interacts with (social)cognitive and affective systems. Initial longitudinal and interventional studies highlight the translational potential of the sensorimotor domain.
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