Risk factors including cardiometabolic and endocrine disorders have a significant impact on atrial remodeling causing atrial fibrillation (AF). Diabetes mellitus and hyperthyroidism are strong independent risk factors for AF and worsen outcomes of rhythm control strategies. An early diagnosis and intervention for these risk factors combined with rhythm control strategies may improve the overall cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge about the AF risk factors diabetes mellitus and thyroid disease, and discusses the impact of the modification of these risk factors on primary and secondary prevention of AF.
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