Introduction Diabetic kidney disease is an increasingly frequent cause of end-stage renal disease. However, mixed results were shown between glycated hemoglobin and mortality. Methods We used the average fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels to predict mortality rates in long-term hemodialysis patients. We enrolled 46,332 hemodialysis patients with diabetes mellitus, who were registered in the Taiwan Renal Registry Data System between January 2005 and December 2012. The patients were stratified based on the quartiles of average FPG levels measured for the first (1-year FPG) and third years (3-year FPG) of hemodialysis. Survival analysis was conducted via multivariable Cox regression. Results After the first year of hemodialysis, the mean FPG levels were 103.5 ± 14.5, 144.7 ± 11.5, 189.6 ± 15.2, and 280.8 ± 1.2 mg/dl for the first, second, third, and fourth quartile, respectively. The Kaplan-Meier curve showed an incremental reduction in the survival as FPG levels increased (P < 0.0001). In the Cox regression model, the adjusted hazard ratios were 1.15 (95% CI: 1.10–1.20), 1.30 (95% CI: 1.25–1.36), and 1.45 (95% CI: 1.39–1.51) for the pairwise comparisons between the first quartile and the second, third, and fourth quartile, respectively. Similar trends were observed by 3-year FPG. Patients whose FPG levels increased had a 22% increased risk (95% CI: 1.16–1.29) for all-cause mortality compared with patients whose FPG levels decreased. Discussion Our results suggest that the average FPG levels are useful predictors of all-cause mortality in dialysis patients. In addition, an increasing trend in average FPG levels indicates poor survival.
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