Pinus taiwanensis Hayata (Pinaceae) is an endemic plant in Taiwan. According to the Chinese Materia Medica Grand Dictionary, the Pinus species is mainly used to relieve pain, and eliminate pus and toxicity. In this study, nineteen compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate layer of the ethanolic extract of P. taiwanensis Hayata twigs using bioassay-guided fractionation, and their anti-melanoma effects were investigated through a B16-F10 mouse melanoma cell model. The structures of the purified compounds were identified by 2D-NMR, MS, and IR, including 1 triterpenoid, 9 diterpenoids, 2 lignans, 4 phenolics, 1 phenylpropanoid, 1 flavonoid, and 1 steroid. Among them, compound 3 was found to be a new diterpene. Some of the compounds (2, 5, 6, 17, 18) showed moderate cytotoxicity effects. On the other hand, the anti-melanoma effect was no better than that from the original ethyl acetate layer. We presumed it resulted from the synergistic effect, although further experimentation needs to be performed.
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