Background: Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute febrile systemic vasculitis that disturbs coronary arteries. Patients' risks of adverse cardiovascular events and subclinical atherosclerosis have been found to significantly increase with polymorphisms of the human cytochrome P450. This current study aims to research the possible relationship between cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily E and polypeptide 1 (CYP2E1) polymorphisms with KD. Methods: We selected 6 tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the CYP2E1 gene for TaqMan allelic discrimination assay in 340 KD patients and performed analysis on the clinical phenotypes and coronary artery lesions (CALs). CAL associations of tag SNPs were adjusted for age and gender in the logistic regression. Results: The KD patients with a CC genotype of rs915906 demonstrated a greater proportion of CAL formation (P = 0.009). Furthermore, the GG genotype frequencies of rs2070676 showed a significantly greater risk for CAL formation in KD patients (P = 0.007). However, the SNPs of the CYP2E1 gene did not influence CAL formation in the participating KD patients either with or without high-dose acetylsalicylic acid. Using the expression quantitative trait locus analyses, we found that the SNPs associated with CAL formation in KD also affected CYP2E1 expression in certain cell types. Conclusion: This study is the first to find that the risk of CAL formation is related to CYP2E1 gene polymorphisms in KD patients.
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