In Taiwan, hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) has been used to treat patients with hematological diseases since 1983. Since then, more than 2200 patients have undergone HSCT in 15 large hospitals. The disease entities included acute leukemia in 37% of cases, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in 26%, CML in 10%, multiple myeloma in 7% and severe aplastic anemia in 6%. The conditioning regimens used were mainly myeloablative (84% of cases). Non-myeloablative regimens were fludarabine-based. The average age of allogeneic recipients was at least 10 years older than those in the era before their application. The grafts of all patients were derived from peripheral blood in 85% of cases, BM in 13% and cord blood (CB) in 2%. Forty percent of HSCT patients received autologous grafts, whereas more than 25% of allogeneic HSCT patients received grafts from unrelated donors, and overall, there were more than 200 Taiwan HSCT recipients. Currently, CB has been used successfully in pediatric patients with thalassemia major and also in adult patients with hematological malignancy. After transplantation, there was a relatively lower prevalence of acute GVHD. However, a relatively higher proportion of hepatitis B carriers in the recipients had led to a higher incidence of viral reactivation and clinical hepatitis, which was dramatically decreased following lamivudine prophylaxis. In conclusion, HSCT has been successfully adapted to routine clinical care in Taiwan. Several important findings contributing to the progress of HSCT in the past two decades have also been noticed on this island.
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