Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) develop as manifestations of the recognition and defense against malignant cells by the host immune system. TILs were literally defined as "tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes", which a posteriori locate within the tumor tissues. Although such cells can be found, they fail to control the growth of tumor. Many have proposed diverse mechanisms for dysfunction of TILs with regard to the roles of immunosurveillance against cancer. However, only a few cancer types, e.g. melanoma, have seen the benefits brought by activating these cells for immunotherapy. Functional defects of TILs have been linked to abnormalities of signaling molecules; however, there is conflicting data. The death of TILs was attributed to expression of cancer-derived FasL, PD-1 and RCAS1, and cancer-induced activation-induced cell death (AICD). Confirmed by studies using TILs and animal models, the compromise of tumor-specific immune responses was thought to result from not only mechanisms of clonal anergy but also exhaustion and/or deletion. Furthermore, functional cytotoxic CD8 + TILs might be rendered incompetent by cancer-induced up-regulation of inhibitory NK receptors or proximal signaling abnormalities. Additionally, immune privilege was partly attributed to recruitment of regulatory T cells to the tumor sites. The failure of IL-2 signaling, which stands at the center of T cell functionalities, had been linked to the enzymatic activity of cancer-derived matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Finally, the exploitation of IDO expression, an important enzyme in pregnancy-related immunosuppression, by cancer cells might play a role in tumor immunity. The disparity of cancer types, origin, developmental stages and individual genetic backgrounds likely account for differences, or even contradictions, which might be the reason why immunotherapy works only on a few cancer types. Delineating the mechanisms behind functional defects of TILs can help not only boost chances of the development of a successful cure but understand the not fully identified roles played by immune system in the face of malignancies.
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