Cryptococcus spp. other than Cryptococcus neoformans are generally considered nonpathogenic to humans. There are only 15 case reports of disease in humans caused by Cryptococcus laurentii infection. Underlying diseases and predisposing risk factors seem to play an important role in these cases. Our patient is the first case of an extremely low birth weight infant with C. laurentii fungemia reported in the English literature. In our case, the MIC of amphotericin B for C. laurentii was 0.25 to 1 μg/ml and the patient had a good outcome following the administration of amphotericin B at 10 mg/kg combined with central venous catheter removal. There will undoubtedly be an increasing occurrence of unusual fungal infections accompanying further advances in medicine. A high degree of suspicion and improvements in the techniques for culture and identification will contribute to the earlier diagnosis and treatment of unusual fungal infections.
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