Objective: To explore, using 4D ultrasound, the importance of location and tension of transobturator sub- urethral tape (TOT) with respect to surgical outcome. Methods: Enrolled into the study were 56 women who had undergone TOT placement in the treatment of urodynamic stress incontinence. Tape location and tension were assessed by 4D ultrasound with the women at rest, during straining and during coughing. Ultrasound parameters representing tape location included the sagittal tape-symphysis pubis distance (sTSD), sagittal tape-symphysis pubis angle (sTSA) and tape percentile (an indication of tape position along the urethra with respect to urethral length), while those representing tape tension included urethral encroachment, sagittal tape-urethra distances at the upper end (sTUDu), center (sTUDc) and lower end (sTUDl) of the tape and axial urethral central echolucent area at the tape center (aUCEAc). Results: In women in whom the tape procedure had been successful, during increased intra-abdominal pressure sTSA and the incidence of urethral encroachment increased, while sTUDu, sTUDc, sTUDl and aUCEAc decreased. Compared with those reporting no stress urinary incontinence (SUI) symptoms, women who reported SUI postoperatively had lower tape percentile. Women with SUI postoperatively demonstrated no manifestation on ultrasound of urethral encroachment at rest or during increased intra-abdominal pressure. Women with postoperative overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms had shorter resting sTSD and larger resting sTSA than did women without OAB symptoms. Women reporting postoperative de novo or worsening voiding difficulty had larger resting sTSA and higher incidence of urethral encroachment at rest than did women without this difficulty. Conclusions: Both tape location and tape tension are associated with surgical outcome of TOT procedures. Assessment of tape location and tension can be achieved using 4D ultrasound.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Obstetrics and Gynaecology
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
- Reproductive Medicine