Study Design: Comparing a prospective group of 32 patients, who underwent percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) and who were treated with teriparatide for at least 18 months after a new-onset adjacent vertebral compression fracture (VCF), and compared it with a retrospective group of 33 patients, who received antiresorptive agents combined with repeated PVPs for post-PVP new-onset adjacent VCFs. Objective: This comparative study aimed to assess the immediate and mid-term efficacy and safety of teriparatide for treating new adjacent VCFs after vertebroplasty. Summary of Background Data: Vertebroplasty may provoke fractures in adjacent, nonaugmented vertebrae. Subsequent VCFs can occur much sooner and more frequently after PVPs. Antiresorptive agents do not effectively prevent new-onset VCFs or prompt pain relief. Treatment with teriparatide is effective and rapid in increasing spinal bone mineral density (BMD) and in decreasing vertebral fracture risk in patients with osteoporosis. Methods: Relevant clinical data were compared between a prospective group of patients who received teriparatide and a retrospective group of patients who received antiresorptive agents and repeated PVPs for new-onset adjacent VCFs after PVP. Results: Data in prospective group, including visual analogue scale scores and BMD were compared with those in a retrospective group. In group A, only 1 new-onset VCF occurred during the mean follow-up period of 22.56 months. In group B, 5 patients (6 vertebrae) developed new-onset VCFs after the second PVP, and 2 of these 5 patients had additional new VCFs after the third PVP. Teriparatide significantly reduced the risk of new VCFs after vertebroplasty (odds ratio=0.18; 95% confidence interval, 0.02-1.64). The increase of lumbar spine BMD was 26.32% after 18 months of treatment with teriparatide and 4.62% after 18 months of treatment with antiresorptive agents. In addition, at the 18-month follow-up, mean visual analogue scale scores had decreased from 8.03±1.97-1.37±0.52 in the teriparatide group and from 7.91±1.95-4.23±1.21 in the antiresorptive group. Conclusions: For the treatment of new-onset adjacent VCF after PVPs, the therapeutic effects of teriparatide is better than that of the combined vertebroplasty and an antiresorptive agent in fracture prevention, BMD change, and sustained pain relief.
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