BACKGROUND: Limited information is available comparing the clinical characteristics and prognosis for patients with coronary vasospastic angina in the absence of hemodynamically significant coronary artery disease (CAD) (defined as >50% stenosis) versus patients with significant fixed CAD presenting with either stable angina pectoris (SAP) or acute coronary syndromes (ACS). METHODS: Patients who underwent cardiac catheterization for suspected ischemic heart disease between August 1999 and February 2003 were followed clinically. For patients without hemodynamically significant CAD, a provocation test for coronary vasospasm was undertaken using a step-wise dose of intracoronary ergonovine administration. RESULTS: A total of 1134 patients were enrolled in the final analysis and stratified into 4 diagnostically distinct groups: control group (n = 239; mild CAD without coronary vasospasm); vasospasm group (n = 284; coronary vasospastic angina pectoris without hemodynamically significant CAD); SAP group (n = 110; hemodynamically significant CAD with SAP); ACS group (n = 501; hemodynamically significant CAD with ACS). Comparison of these 4 groups revealed that the ACS patients were more likely to be male, current smokers, and have hypercholesterolemia. In addition, this group had a significantly higher incidence of typical angina pectoris, 3-vessel CAD, and lower left ventricular ejection fraction. Between-group comparison revealed that vasospasm patients had a significantly higher incidence of early morning angina pectoris. Multivariate analysis showed that current smoking was the most independent risk factor associated with the diagnosis of coronary vasospastic angina pectoris in patients without hemodynamically significant CAD. During a median follow-up period of 49 months, recurrent angina pectoris was noted in patients from the control (n = 6; 3%), SAP (n = 9; 8%), vasospasm (n = 30, 11%), and ACS groups (n = 92; 18%); with nonfatal myocardial infarction identified during follow-up in the SAP (n = 5; 5%), vasospasm (n = 3; 1%), and ACS groups (n = 37; 7%). In addition, 29 and 3 cardiac deaths occurred in the ACS and SAP groups, respectively, whereas there were no such mortalities in the control and vasospasm groups. CONCLUSIONS: Early morning angina pectoris and cigarette smoking were the most common clinical characteristics in patients with coronary vasospasm. These patients had an excellent prognosis despite the possibility of recurrences of vasospastic angina pectoris.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- 醫藥 (全部)