Background: Creating and maintaining a functioning arteriovenous access is essential for long-term hemodialysis patients. Transposed brachiobasilic fistula (BBF) or arteriovenous graft (AVG) becomes an option when radiocephalic or brachiocephalic fistula cannot be created or fails. This study compared the patency and complications between BBFs and AVGs among patients on hemodialysis. Methods: A retrospective study was performed in Shuang Ho Hospital, Taiwan, from November 2015 to May 2020. All the operations were done by a single surgeon. Primary outcomes were primary patency, primary-assisted patency, and secondary patency of the BBF and AVG groups. Secondary outcomes were incidence of complications and reinterventions. Results: Of the 144 consecutive patients, 20 and 124 patients underwent BBF and AVG creation, respectively. Median follow-up time was 19.2 months. Primary patency at 1 and 2 years were 67% and 19% in the BBF group and 44% and 16% in the AVG group (P = 0.126). Primary-assisted patency at 1 and 2 years were 82% and 54% in the BBF group and 54% and 30% in the AVG group (P = 0.012). Secondary patency at 1 and 2 years were 100% and 82% in the BBF group and 81% and 67% in the AVG group (P = 0.078). The incidence of complication was significantly higher in the AVG than in the BBF group (1.7 per patient-year vs 0.93, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Compared with the AVG group, BBF group showed better primary-assisted patency, less complication and intervention rates. Therefore, BBF is a reliable option for patients with exhausted cephalic veins if basilic vein is available for reconstruction.
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