Recent evidence has demonstrated that detection of changes in the levels of urinary vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and tissue a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 9 (ADAM9) is effective in determining prostate cancer progression. To evaluate the combined application of VEGF and ADAM9 as early progression markers of lethal phenotypic cancer, quantification of urinary VEGF and tissue ADAM9 expression was studied in patients with late stage prostate cancer. Tissue biopsies were collected during palliative transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) surgery, and urine samples were collected before hormone therapy and 3, 6 and 12 months post-TURP. We observed a nearly 100% correlation between increasing urinary VEGF levels over time and prostate cancer progression, but no correlation was observed when comparing urinary VEGF concentrations at a single time point and cancer progression. In addition, we also observed correlation of increasing ADAM9 nuclear positive staining and lethal phenotypic transition. Statistical analysis revealed that both the increase in urinary VEGF level and the presence of the tissue ADAM9 nuclear staining were significantly correlated with the risk of patients with relapse prostate cancer (P <0.05). Thus, we suggest that combination of detection of changes in urinary VEGF and tissue staining of ADAM9 may be accurate for predicting the mortality of patients with prostate cancer during hormone therapy.
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