High fructose diet causes metabolic syndrome and induces host gut microbial dysbiosis and related obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Several antibiotic treatments could prevent fatty liver. However, there are studies that have demonstrated that a high-fructose diet could influence the gut microbial dysbiosis and induce fatty liver. The purpose of this study was performed to partially modify the gut bacterial composition with a single cefotaxime treatment, which might affect the fructose-induced NAFLD severity. The C57BL/6JNarl male mice were di-vided into four groups including vehicle/chow diet (VE-CD), vehicle/high-fructose diet (VE-FD), antibiotic (cefotaxime (CF))/CD, and CF/FD. The results showed that body weight gain, moderate hepatic steatosis severity, epididymal white adipose tissue hypertrophy, and insulin resistance occurrence with NAFLD-related symptoms were observed only in the CF-FD group. The raised protein expression of hepatic lipogenesis was observed in the CF-FD group, but lipolysis protein expression was no difference. The diversity and composition of microbiota were significantly reduced in the CF-FD group. The Erysipelatoclostridium, Enterobacteriaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Escherichia Shigella were in increased abundance in the feces of CF-FD group compared with VE-FD group. The novel model reveals that particular antibiotics such as cefotaxime co-treatment with high-fructose diet may affect the gut microbiota accelerating the NAFLD and obesity.
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