Background: Our aims were to evaluate the genotype distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) and the correlation between HPV parameters and clinicopathological/treatment variables with prognosis in cervical adeno-adenosquamous carcinoma (AD/ASC). Patients and methods: Consecutive patients who received primary treatment for cervical AD/ASC International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stages I-IV between 1993 and 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. Prognostic models were constructed and followed by internal validation with bootstrap resampling. Results: A total of 456 AD/ASC patients were eligible for HPV genotyping, while 452 were eligible for survival analysis. HPV18 was detected in 51.5% and HPV16 in 36.2% of the samples. Age >50 years old, FIGO stages III-IV and HPV16-negativity were significantly related to cancer relapse, and age >50, FIGO stages III-IV, HPV16-negativity and HPV58-positivity were significant predictors for cancer-specific survival (CSS) by multivariate analyses. HPV16-positivity was also significantly associated with good prognosis in those receiving primary radiotherapy or concurrent chemoradiation (RT/CCRT) (CSS: hazard ratio 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.21-0.78). Patients with FIGO stages I-II and HPV16-negative AD/ASC treated with primary RH-PLND had significantly better CSS (p < 0.0001) than those treated with RT/CCRT. Conclusions: Age >50 years old, FIGO stages III-IV and HPV16-negativity were significant poor prognostic factors in cervical AD/ASC. Patients with HPV16-negative tumour might better be treated with primary surgery (e.g. radical hysterectomy for stages I-II and pelvic exenteration for stage IVA). Those with unresectable HPV16-negative tumour (stage IIIB) should undergo CCRT in combination with novel drugs. The inferences of a single-institutional retrospective study require prospective studies to confirm.
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