Background: Patients who receive percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have different chances of developing in-stent restenosis (ISR). To date, no predictable biomarker can be applied in the clinic. MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) play critical roles in transcription regulation, and their circulating levels were reported to have potential as clinical biomarkers. Methods: In total, 93 coronary stent-implanted patients without pregnancy, liver or renal dysfunction, malignancy, hemophilia, or autoimmune diseases were recruited in this clinical study. All recruited participants were divided into an ISR group (n = 45) and a non-ISR group (n = 48) based on their restenotic status as confirmed by cardiologists at the first follow-up visit (6 months after surgery). Blood samples of all participants were harvested to measure circulating levels of miRNA candidates (miR-132, miR-142-5p, miR-15b, miR-24-2, and miR-424) to evaluate whether these circulating miRNAs can be applied as predictive biomarkers of ISR. Results: Our data indicated that circulating levels of miR-142-5p were significantly higher in the ISR population, and results from the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis also demonstrated superior discriminatory ability of miR-142-5p in predicting patients’ restenotic status. In addition, circulating levels of miR-15b, miR-24-2, and miR-424 had differential expressions in participants with diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension, respectively. Conclusions: The current study revealed that the circulating level of miR-142-5p has potential application as a clinical biomarker for predicting the development of ISR in stent-implanted patients.
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